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Chapter 7 – The creation of the phase model

Part 3


Technical term Definition
Milestone A significant event (e.g. completion of a sub-task, interim acceptance) during a project.
Milestone plan Checks the timing of interim results.
Process model A process model is a planning and management tool that visually depicts workflows.
Phase model Special type of a process model.
Projects are divided into different phases in order to break the overall project goal down to partial steps.
Targets Unless the phases are precisely specified and the phase outcome is properly defined, it will be difficult to estimate costs and timeframes.
Budgeting model Before an estimate is made, it is necessary to decide whether to use the top-down or bottom-up method.
Limitations of the phase model Lengthy, overlapping and/or cost-intensive phases generally cannot be implemented without a work breakdown structure.

Let’s practice – transfer project

Now it’s your turn!

First of all, work out the individual phases and milestones, then you can create a phase model for your friend's wedding!


Here's an example how the phases and milestones can be named and arranged.

The costs and the duration were estimated with the top-down approach. The corresponding chart would then look like this:

Test yourself!

Now it's time to check your knowledge.

Answer the following questions for yourself. Please take your time and think carefully about what you would answer before revealing the solution.

What objections to process models might you encounter?
  • They make the project bureaucratic.
  • Unnecessary documentation is generated.
  • They necessitate strictly sequential processes.
What is the purpose of a team estimate?
  • Earliest possible ascertainment of total project costs.
  • Common basis for communication and future meetings.
  • Facilitates structured, work package or phase-based project team communication.
  • Brings to light as many undisclosed assumptions and prerequisites relating to the project as possible
  • Provides the management and project team with the assurance that the project plan is actually workable.
How is a milestone defined?

A milestone is a significant event. It often indicates a transition to another project phase and – depending on the evaluation of the phase results – is the basis for the decision on whether to approve the commencement of the next phase, repeat the phase or abandon the project.

How is quality management taken into account in the process models?
  • By preparing a milestone plan to check the timing of interim results.
  • Using audits, reviews and assessments to check and evaluate the deliverables at the end of each phase, i.e. when each milestone is reached.